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ACD Biomedical Workforce Working Group Data

Additional Resources

PhD Biomedical Research Workforce

Graduate Education & Training:
  • Fuhrmann et al (2011) Improving Graduate Education to Support a Branching Career Pipeline: Recommendations Based on a Survey of Doctoral Students in the Basic Biomedical Sciences, CBE Life Sciences, Vol 10, pp. 239-249.
  • Bell et al (2011) Enrollment and Degrees in Professional Science Master’s (PSM) Programs,

Postdoctoral Training:
  • Garrison et al (2005) Foreign postdocs: the changing face of biomedical science in the U.S., The FASEB Journal, Vol. 19 pp. 1938-1942
  • Richards (2012) Best Places to Work Postdocs, The Scientist

  • Jacob et al (2007) The Impact of Research Grant Funding on Scientific Productivity, Working paper 13519
  • Liu et al (2004) Tenure in Transition: Trends in Basic Science Faculty Appointment Policies at U.S. Medical Schools, Academic Medicine, Vol 79, No. 3
  • Bunton et al (2007) The Continued Evolution of Faculty Appointment and Tenure Policies at U.S. Medical Schools Academic Medicine, Vol 82, No. 3
  • Stephan (2012) How Economics Shapes Science, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

  • Finn (2009) Stay Rates of Foreign Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities, ORISE
  • Auriol (2007) Labour Market Characteristics and International Mobility of Doctorate Holders

  • Addressing the Nation's Changing Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists (2000)
  • National Research Council.(1998) Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists; The National Academies

  • U.S. Biotechnology Metrics; Ernst & Young’s “Global Biotechnology Report 2010”
  • Batelle BIO 2010 State Bioscience Initiatives Report
  • Economist Intelligence Unit: Industries 2012
  • Moses et al (2005) JAMA Financial Anatomy of Biomedical Research, JAMA
  • Dorsey et al (2010) JAMA of US Biomedical Research, 2003-2008;
  • Manyika et al (2011)McKinsey GIobal Institute: An economy that works: Job creation and America’s future;
  • Bureau of Labor and Statistics: Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing Outlook 2010-11 Edition
  • Monster Job Market Intelligence: 2011 Biotechnology Job Candidates
  • NSF Industry Technology 2012
  • PhRMA Pharmaceutical Industry 2011 Profile
  • Pricewaterhouse Coopers, Growth Reimagined Pharmaceuticals and Life Sciences Industry Summary

MD & MD/PhD Biomedical Research Workforce

Medical &Graduate Education & Training:
  • Brass, L.F. (2010) Are MD-PhD Programs Meeting Their Goals? An Analysis of Career Choices Made by Graduates of 24 MD-PhD Programs; Academic Medicine 85(4):692-701.
  • Schwartz, A.L. (2011) Commentary: Physician-Scientist Attrition: Stemming the Tide Through National Networks for Training and Development; Academic Medicine 86(9):1071-1072.
  • Jeffe, D.B. and Andriole, D.A. (2011) A National Cohort Study of MD-PhD Graduates of Medical Schools With and Without Funding From the National Institutes of General Medical Sciences' Medical Scientist Training Program; Academic Medicine 86(8): 953-961.
  • Iglehart, J.K. (2011) The Uncertain Future of Medicare and Graduate Medical Education; New England Journal of Medicine 365(14):1340-1345.
  • Koniaris, L.G. (2010) Perspective: PhD Scientists Completing Medical School in Two Years: Looking at the Miami PhD-to-MD Program Alumni Twenty Years Later; Academic Medicine 85(4): 687-691.
  • Androile D.A. (2008) Characteristics and Career Intentions of the Emerging MD/PhD Workforce; JAMA 300(20):1165-1173.
  • Phillips, J.P. (2010) Medical Student Debt and Primary Care Specialty Intentions; Fam Med 42(9):616-22.
  • The Robert Graham Center: Policy Studies in Family Medicine and Primary Care,(2009)What Influences Medical Student & Resident Choices?
  • Dyrbye, L.N. (2008)Research Productivity of Graduates from 3 Physician-Scientist Training Programs; The American Journal of Medicine 121(12): 1107-1113.

  • Teo, A.R. (2009) The Development of Clinical Research Training: Past History and Current Trends in the United States; Academic Medicine, 84(4): 433-438.
  • Puljak, L. (2007) An Overlooked Source of Physician-Scientists; Journal of Investigative Medicine 55:402-405.
  • Vidyasagar, D. (2007) Integrating International Medical Graduates into the Physician-Scientist Pool: Solution to the Problem of Decreasing Physician-Scientists in the United States;Journal of Investigative Medicine 55:406-409.
  • Chen P. G-C, et. al. (2011) Professional Challenges of Non-US Born International Medical Graduates and Recommendations for Support During Residency Training; Academic Medicine 86:1383-1388.
  • Alexander, H. (2007) Contributions of international medical graduates to US biomedical research: The experience of US medical schools; Journal of Investigative Medicine 55(8): 410-414.
  • American Medical Association (2010) International Medical Graduates in American Medicine: Contemporary Challenges and Opportunities - A position paper by the AMA-IMG Section Governing Council. ( Exit Disclaimer)

  • Dickler, H.B. (2007) New Physician-Investigators Receiving National Institutes of Health Research Project Grants - A Historical Perspective on the "Endangered Species"; JAMA 297(22): 2496-2501.
  • Liu, C.Q. and Alexander, H., Association of American Medical Colleges (2011) The Changing Demographics of Full-time U.S. Medical School Faculty, 1966-2009; Analysis in Brief 11(8):1-2
  • Bunton, S.A. and Corrice, A.M. Association of American Medical Colleges (2010) Trends in Tenure for Clinical M.D. Faculty in U.S. Medical Schools: A 25-Year Review; Analysis in Brief 9(9):1-2
  • Goodwin, M. et al.Association of American Medical Colleges (2011) Sponsored Program Salary Support to Medical School Faculty in 2009; Analysis in Brief 11(1):1-2
  • Liu, C.Q. and Alexander, H., Association of American Medical Colleges (2010) Promotion Rates for First-time Assistant and Associate Professors Appointed from 1967 to 1997; Analysis in Brief 9(7):1-2.
  • Alexander, H. and Liu, C.Q. Association of American Medical Colleges (2009) The Aging of Full-time U.S. Medical School Faculty: 1967-2007; Analysis in Brief 9(4):1-2
  • Alexander, H. and Lang, J., Association of American Medical Colleges (2008)The Long-term Retention and Attrition of U.S. Medical School Faculty; Analysis in Brief 8(4):1-2.
  • Corrice, A.M.,,Association of American Medical Colleges (2011) Retention of Full-time Clinical M.D. Faculty at U.S. Medical Schools; Analysis in Brief 11(2):1-2.
  • Bunton, S.A. and Corrice, A.M., Association of American Medical Colleges (2011) Perceptions of the Promotion Process: An Analysis of U.S. Medical School Faculty; Analysis in Brief 11(5):1-2.

  • Association of Professors of Medicine Physician-Scientist Initiative (2007) Recommendations for Revitalizing the Nation's Physician-Scientist Workforce
Opinion Pieces and Reports
  • National Research Council, (2000) Measuring the Science and Engineering Enterprise: Priorities for the Division of Science Resources Studies
  • ASBMB, (2011) ASBMB Surveys on Gender and Family Issues;
  • Azoulay (2012) “Turn the scientific method on ourselves” How can we know whether funding models for research work?, Nature,
  • Wendler (2012 ) Pathways through Graduate School and into Careers: Council of Graduate Schools,
  • Villegas et al., (2010) Diversifying the Teaching Force: An Examination of Major Arguments; Urban Rev,
  • L. Smith-Doerr (2006) Stuck in the Middle: Doctoral Education Ranking and Career Outcomes for Life Scientists, Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society,
  • G, Petsko (2010) Economies of Scale; Genome Biology,
  • Rohn (2011) Give postdocs a career, not empty promises,; Nature 471, 7 (2011)
  • Nathan et al (1996) Clinical Research: Perceptions, Reality, and Proposed, JAMA,
  • National Bioeconomy Blueprint 2012, White House
  • Teitelbaum et al (2010) Needed: Support for Professional Science Master’s Degrees, The Chronicle of Higher Education, August 2010
  • National Institute of General Medical Sciences Training Plan 2011
  • Alberts (2010) Overbuilding Research Capacity, Science, Vol 329
  • Taylor ( 2011) Reform the PhD system or close it down,Nature 472, 261
  • McCook (2011), Nature, Rethinking PhD’s, 472, 280,
  • National Academies of Sciences (2010) Rising Above the Gathering Storm
  • Research Council, (2008) Science Professionals: Master’s Education for a Competitive World, National
  • Shu (2012) The Long-Term Impact of Business Cycles on Innovation,
  • Stephan (2012) Perverse Incentives, Stephan, 5 April 2012, Nature Vol 484
  • Teitelbaum (2008) Structural Disequilibria in Biomedical Research, Vol 321 Science
  • National Research Council, (2000), Measuring the Science and Engineering Enterprise: Priorities for the Division of Science Resources Studies,
  • The Economist (2010) The disposable academic Doctoral degrees Why doing a PhD is often a waste of time
  • Cyranoski et al (2011) Trends in Early Careers of life Scientists, National Research Council., 1998
  • Bush (1945) Science The Endless Frontier: A Report to the President
  • Price ( 2011) Where are the Neuroscience Jobs, Science
  • Lorden et al (2011) Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment, National Academies Press,
  • The Federal Demonstration Partnership Task Force on Parental and Family Leave for Research Trainees(2012) A Forgotten Class of Scientists: Examining the Parental and Family Benefits Available to Research Trainees
  • American Academic The State of the Higher Education Workforce 1997-2007
  • RTI International (2010) NSF-NIH Survey of Postdoctoratees at Federally Funded Research and Development Centers
  • NAS (2000) Addressing the Nation's Changing Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists Executive Summary
  • June (2012) Aging Professors Create a Faculty Bottleneck, The Chronicle
  • National Research Council (2011) Research Training in the Biomedical, Behavioral, and Clinical Research Sciences
  • National Research Council (2000) Addressing the Nation's Changing Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists
  • National Research Council (1998) Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists; The National Academies